GEM traders and
miners from Myanmar are looking forward to the day when a
major international value-added gem market develops in the
A prominent jade and ruby miner, U Maung Sein of Noble Land
Company Ltd, said Myanmar is the biggest producer of jade
and rubies in the world, but the biggest markets for those
precious stones have been established in other countries.
"The biggest gem market is not in Myanmar but rather in
neighbouring countries, including Thailand, China and
India," he said.
According to government figures, Myanmar produces tens of
thousands of tonnes and carats of precious stones every
"But Myanmar miners and traders enjoy only 10 or less than
10 per cent of the real value of the stones before they go
into the world market," said U Maung Sein, who has been in
the gem business for 15 years.
"Two years ago I found a ruby in a shop in Bangkok that cost
about US$15,000. The same ruby would sell for less than
$1000 in Myanmar," he said.
He suggested that Myanmar should form an association made up
of representatives from the gem industry that can control
the standardisation, quality and production of gems, and
that can regulate the gem market in the country.
"In Myanmar, we have many associations that regulate other
sectors such as rice, pulses and beans, and timber but we
don't have an association dealing with gems and jewellery,"
said U Maung Sein.
"The gem industry could contribute as much to the country's
economy as other sectors if we had an influence on the
intenational market," he said. "Our rubies and jade already
have a good reputation."
"It is good that the government organises gem emporiums
twice a year, but we should have a major international gem
market that operates throughout the year," he added.
U Maung Sein said that during the past several years the
production of someprecious stones, especially rubies) has
The country's ruby production decreased from about
7.24million carats in fiscal 1996- 1997 to about 1.42
million carats in 2002-2003, according to the figures
published by the Ministry of National Planning and Economic
Rubies are also found in Afghanistan, Vietnam and Tanzania,
but Myanmar's are widely considered to be the most beautiful
and valuable, as is Myanmar's jade, sapphire, peridot,
spinel and numerous other rare gemstones.
There are three ruby mining areas in Myanmar: Mogok in
Mandalay Division, Moog Hsu in southern Shan State and a
newly discovered ruby field at Nam Yar in Kachin State.
During the past decade, Myanmar's gem industry has improved
on traditional production methods, leading to mass
processing at 1:i1ine sites. This has involved establishing
large, open-cut pits worked by modern heavy machinery that
can remove dirt from the site and literally flatten large
hills in a matter of months.
Liberalisation of mining in the Mogok; field was initiated
by the government's Myanma Gems Enterprise in 1991.
In 1995 the enterprise handed over its gem mining operation
to the Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings Ltd with
operations in Mogok, Mong Hsu, Nam Yar and Pharkant.
Though mechanisation has helped miners recover gemstones
more quickly, the precious stones are now becoming more
difficult to find.
Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings produced eight million
carats of rubies in fiscal year 1997-1998 but the figure
decreased to three million carats in 2001-2002. A source
close to the company said the figure has gone down even
further since then.
"Given the situation, Myanmar should put emphasis on
value-added production," said U Maung Sein. "The idea is
that we must focus on getting good prices for the gemstones
we have rather than concentrating on quantity."
"And we have to concentrate on marketing, including the use
of electronic methods," said U Maung Sein, who runs the only
gem and jewellery website in Myanmar,
He said his website is becoming increasingly popular and has
been getting a growing number of hits from around the world.
Other traders must take advantage of this trend by educating
themselves in the use of email and the internet.
"Most traders are sitting around waiting for international
buyers to just show up, and never consider using modem
marketing strategies," said U Maung Sein.
Another top gem trader said the ruby supply has gone down by
about SO per cent during the last two years.
" And I think our value-added gem sales are less than one
percent of Thailand's cut gem sales," he added.